Causes[ edit ] When cells are faced with physiological or pathological stresses, they respond by adapting in any of several ways, one of which is metaplasia. It is a benign i. One example of pathological irritation is cigarette smoke that causes the mucus-secreting ciliated pseudostratified columnar respiratory epithelial cells that line the airways to be replaced by stratified squamous epithelium, or a stone in the bile duct that causes the replacement of the secretory columnar epithelium with stratified squamous epithelium Squamous metaplasia. Metaplasia is an adaptation that replaces one type of epithelium with another that is more likely to be able to withstand the stresses it is faced with.
Also both men are guilty: His situation of intensifying anxiety, already an unalterable fact at his awakening, corresponds to Georg's after his sentence. More so than Georg, however, who comes to accept his judgment, out of proportion though it may be, Gregor is a puzzled victim brought before the Absolute — here in the form of the chief clerk — which forever recedes into the background.
This element of receding, an important theme in Kafka's works, intensifies the gap between the hero and the unknown source of his condemnation.
Thus the reader finds himself confronted with Gregor's horrible fate and is left in doubt about The metamorphosis notes source of Gregor's doom and the existence of enough personal guilt to warrant such a harsh verdict.
The selection of an ordinary individual as victim heightens the impact of the absurd. Gregor is not an enchanted prince in a fairy tale, yearning for deliverance from his animal state; instead, he is a rather average salesman who awakens and finds himself transformed into an insect.
In a sense, Gregor is the archetype of many of Kafka's male characters: The metamorphosis notes example, he uses his whole body to anxiously guard the magazine clipping of a lady in a fur cape; this is a good illustration of his pitiful preoccupation with sex.
Though it would be unfair to blame him for procrastinating, for not getting out of bed on the first morning of his metamorphosis, we have every reason to assume that he has procrastinated long before this — especially in regard to a decision about his unbearable situation at work. Gregor has also put off sending his sister to the conservatory, although he promised to do so.
He craves love and understanding, but his prolonged inactivity gradually leads him to feel ever more indifferent about everything. It is through all his failures to act, then, rather than from specific irresponsible actions he commits, that Gregor is guilty.
The price his guilt exacts is that of agonizing loneliness. Plays on words and obvious similarities of names point to the story's highly autobiographical character. The arrangement of the vowels in Samsa is the same as in Kafka. More significantly yet, samsja means "being alone" in Czech.
In this connection, it is noteworthy that in "Wedding Preparations in the Country," an earlier use of the metamorphosis motif, the hero's name is Raban. The same arrangement of the vowel a prevails, and there is also another play on words: Rabe is German for raven, the Czech word for which is kavka; the raven, by the way, was the business emblem of Kafka's father.
It is easy to view Gregor as an autobiographical study of Kafka himself. Gregor's father, his mother, and his sister also have their parallels with Kafka's family. Gregor feels that he has to appease his father, who "approaches with a grim face" toward him, and it is his father's bombardment with apples that causes his death.
The two women, on the other hand, have the best of intentions — his mother pleading for her son's life, believing that Gregor's state is only some sort of temporary sickness; she even wants to leave the furniture in his room the way it is "so that when he comes back to us he will find everything as it was and will be able to forget what has happened all the more easily.
These people simply do not understand, and the reason they do not understand is that they are habitually too "preoccupied with their immediate troubles. Shortly after completing "The Metamorphosis," Kafka wrote in his diary: Gregor never identifies himself with an insect.
It is important to realize, therefore, that Gregor's metamorphosis actually takes place in his "uneasy dreams," which is something altogether different than saying it is the result of the lingering impact of these dreams.
An interpretation often advanced categorizes Gregor's metamorphosis as an attempt at escaping his deep-seated conflict between his true self and the untenable situation at the company. He begs the chief clerk for precisely that situation which has caused him to be so unhappy; he implores him to help him maintain his position and, while doing so, completely forgets that he is a grotesquerie standing in front of the chief clerk.
What bothers Gregor most about his situation at the company is that there is no human dimension in what he is doing: As will be shown later, he would have had every reason to do so. As it turns out, he was, and still is, too weak.
Even now in his helpless condition, he continues to think of his life as a salesman in "normal" terms; he plans the day ahead as if he could start it like every other day, and he is upset only because of his clumsiness. Although one might expect such a horrible fate to cause a maximum of intellectual and emotional disturbance in a human being — and Gregor remains one inwardly until his death — he stays surprisingly calm.
His father shows the same incongruous behavior when confronted with Gregor's fate; he acts as if this fate were something to be expected from his son.
The maid treats him like a curious pet, and the three lodgers are amused, rather than appalled, by the sight of the insect. The reason for the astounding behavior of all these people is found in their incapacity to comprehend disaster.
This incapacity, in turn, is a concomitant symptom of their limitless indifference toward everything happening to Gregor. Because they have maintained a higher degree of sensitivity, the women in Gregor's family respond differently at first, Gregor's mother even resorting to a fainting spell to escape having to identify the insect with her son.
Gregor's unbelievably stayed reaction to his horrible fate shows Kafka, the master painter of the grotesque, at his best.While much attention has been focused on high-level software architectural patterns, what is, in effect, the de-facto standard software architecture is seldom discussed.
This paper examines the most frequently deployed architecture: the BIG BALL OF MUD. Online books & resources about Franz Kafka.
'The Metamorphosis' by F. Kafka (full text, translation by Will and Edwin Muir). The Metamorphoses (Latin: Scholar Stephen M. Wheeler notes that "metamorphosis, mutability, love, violence, artistry, and power are just some of the unifying themes that critics have proposed over the years".
Metamorphosis. In nova fert animus mutatas dicere formas / corpora; ”. A short summary of Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis.
This free synopsis covers all the crucial plot points of The Metamorphosis. Kafka wrote "The Metamorphosis" at the end of , soon after he finished "The judgment," and it is worth noting that the two stories have much in common: a businessman and bachelor like Georg Bendemann of "The judgment," Gregor Samsa is confronted with .
Sparknotes "The Metamorphosis"!
My friend downloaded and together we pieced together the underlying meanings of Kafka's story. SparkNotes interpreted Kafka's writings into a 4/5(2).