They were later joined by the Soviets, when the German Nazis broke their alliance with the Russian Communists, and they invaded Russia inin order to get hold of the oil of Baku Azerbaijan. But the Nazis were defeated at Stalingrad and they never reached Baku. The Communists won the war, and the Chinese nationalists fled the Chinese mainland, and they established a small Chinese state in Taiwan.
As one would expect, this transition has not been painless and has been the impetus of many distressing problems for the Russian people. One such problem is organized crime. This paper will explore how organized crime during Soviet rule and the Russian Federation has created obstacles in this transition to a functioning market economy.
It will also provide some possible solutions for the crises organized crime has created, which currently plague the Russian people. Organized crime has worked its way through openings provided by the transition economy to become a setback to the Russian society and economy.
Its existence disables successful economic reform by influencing important issues such as competition, entrepreneurship, capital flight, the shadow economy, and violence. Basis in Soviet Union In order to understand organized crime in Russia today and its affect on the Russian economy, one must examine its roots in the Soviet Union.
Byorganized crime had expanded to form over gangs in the Russian republic alone Anderson, The extensiveness of organized crime in the USSR is quite apparent when one examines such numbers, but the more important question is what was inherent in the USSR that facilitated such crime and how this later affected organized crime in the Russian Federation.
Two characteristics of the USSR were integral in the development of a powerful organized crime syndicate. These were no small problems either. According to the All-Union Research Institute of the Soviet Interior Ministry inabout half of the income of the average government employee consisted of bribes Sterling, However, the presence of illegal markets was even more essential to the existence of a mafia in the USSR.
Everyone is aware that illegal markets such as alcohol during the prohibition period or drugs today elicit organized crime, yet this association was unique in the USSR. In the USSR, every form of economic transaction that did not involve the government concerned an illegal market.
This created a situation ripe for criminals in the Soviet Union. However, this did not mean that once the Russian people made their transition to a market economy organized crime lost its basis for existence.
Russian organized crime made a rather seamless transition to the semi-market economy initiated after the break-up of the USSR, and this can be attributed to two factors.
First, for decades the Soviet People had been indoctrinated with the idea that private property had an illegal connotation.
For this reason, many Russians viewed private property as somehow illegitimate even after the fall of the USSR, so no one thought it particularly important to stop its infiltration by organized crime Anderson, Second, the black market that existed during the USSR created a social stratum of organized criminals whose connections and elevated economic status remained in post-Soviet Russia Williams, Their distinction in status allowed them to get a head start in the new opportunities afforded by the freer markets of post-Soviet Russia, and this differentiation was one of the many reasons behind the subsequent growth of organized crime in post-Soviet Russia.
The absence of transparency in business operations allowed organized crime to veil their illegal actions from prosecution.
The lack of accountability made it so that when something was found questionable, nobody was held responsible for it. With these methods, organized crime grew in power and graft. In addition, the constitutional and criminal code concerning privatization and taxation were left vague Webster, This allowed the Russian mafia to infiltrate the new financial opportunities afforded to them by private markets, and a lack of concrete and clear taxation practices allowed to them to engage in questionable policies without fear of government actions like audits exposing their illegal activities.
This problem is associated with the appalling state of the Russian law enforcement, which is due to a couple factors.
These deficiencies make for a highly unorganized and extremely inefficient law enforcement.
In addition, the low pay of law enforcement leads to them taking bribes necessary to keep above the poverty line Grib, These bribes help organized crime to act without fear of retribution and grow without restraint.
Corruption is even worse in the more remote regions in which government officials are not closely monitored by the central government Webster, Due to this fact, organized crime grows at a fevered pace in the outlying regions of Russia, and this growth intensifies the already sorry state of these regions.
Organized crime can also attribute its prosperity to inadequacies in the judicial system. Lawyers are still deeply connected with out-of-date practices of law inherited from the Soviet Union Grib, Their lack of experience and inefficiency with the new system leads to an inability to prosecute defendants well, especially those in organized crime.
In addition, Russian prosecutors have trouble targeting those who really facilitate organized crime. Defendants rarely come from the upper echelon of organized crime. This tendency of the Russian judicial system is very beneficial to organized crime.
Small-stature criminals are easily replaced, while higher officials are left to improve. This is a very alarming statistic considering the purpose of a judicial system is lost if those who perpetrate crimes are not reprimanded for their actions.The Fall of the Soviet Union.
In order to understand the consequences related to the collapse of the Soviet Union, it is critical to first examine the overarching causes for the USSR’s downfall. Apr 20, · Map China moves closer to America while Europe moves closer to Russia.
Map. The KGB Breaks the Soviet Union. It is very naïve to assume that the Soviet Union fall because of its economic problems, or because of the poverty of its people. The Soviet Union was run by KGB, and it . Cracking the Soviet bloc. In March Gorbachev became the President of the Soviet Union, the first and only man to hold the rank.
But things began to spin out of control. Spurred on by “glasnost”, the long-suppressed nationalist feelings swelled in the Soviet republics. In .
Russian organized crime is heir to a vivid and brutal history, but it is no longer defined by the gulags, and the vory has been in decline since the fall of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Mob: Organized Crime in a Fledgling Democracy. Basis in Soviet Union. ). Many of the opportunities for the growth of organized crime in Russia after can be attributed solely to the government’s feeble transition to a market economy.
In this period, the government failed to make any structural changes to policies. Dec 26, · The Russian Mob or Mafia, Russkaya Mafiya, Red Mafia, Krasnaya Mafiya or Bratva (slang for 'brotherhood'), is a name given to a broad group of organized criminals of various ethnicity which appeared in the former Soviet Union territories after its disintegration in