How indians became eskimos essay

From racial discrimination, economic discrimination and ethnocide we see the depth of this issue unfold in one afternoon on the highway from Geraldton to Perth.

How indians became eskimos essay

Tlingit Woman, Wrangell, Alaska Coastal Alaska is spectacular, if rain-drenched, with rugged mountains and fjords. An archipelago of islands, 80 miles wide and scraped up by continental plates, protects the mainland shore.

How indians became eskimos essay

Covered by forests of spruce, hemlock, cedar, and brush, these lands were home to marten, beaver, mink, deer, bear, Dall sheep, and mountain goat, while the sea teemed with seal, sea otter, How indians became eskimos essay many kinds of fish, particularly salmon and halibut.

In native belief of both Alaska and Siberia, the present world owes much of its form and features to an immortal being called Raven, who combined attributes of spirit, human, bird, genius, and fool.

A god often known as Heaven had a diffuse and distant interest in the world. Among Tlingit, this being is called Shagoon, with a complex meaning that includes ancestors, heritage, origin, destiny, and supreme deity.

Throughout the North Pacific Coast, except at the far north, red cedar trees provided natives with logs for posts and molded canoes, or straight grained planks for house sides, bentwood boxes, and essential tools.

Travel was mostly by water because dense undergrowth, thickets of berries and brambles, obstructed land routes, except along river banks.

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In early spring, rivers run with smelt-like candlefish, so named because their bodies were full of oil that was boiled out for use as food.

All summer, runs of five different salmon species were processed for storage as winter supplies. Area resources were generally abundant but varied from one local to another.

These fluctuations became evened out by towns working together through elaborate kinship networks, social units like houses and clans, and complex international or intertribal relations expressed through rituals. Expanding northward for centuries, the Tlingit nation most recently consists of three language subdialect regions with 16 component "tribes" which they call qwaaneach with a primary village.

Neighbors to the south were the Tsimshian, to the west were the Haida, and to the east were Athapaskans who call themselves Dine of Interior Alaska.

Further north were the Eyak, remotely related by language ancestry but adopting Tlingit speech and culture over past centuries. Housing The basic unit of Tlingit society was the household, a "house" in the same sense as the House of David or House of Windsor that was a home with three resident social classes of nobles, commoners, and slaves See also: An actual house, the visible form for vital economic, social, political, and religious bonds, was a large rectangle with cedar planks set along the sides and upon a low-sloping, peaked roof held up by four decorated corner posts and a ridge beam.

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Inside, the floor was dug down so the sides of the house could hold two or more levels of benches, a platform where people sat and a higher one divided by wooden partitions into sleeping compartments.

On the beach in front of the house were canoes, sheds for smoking fish, drying racks, and work areas. At the rear of each house, before or inside its secluded storeroom holding sacred treasures, lived the members of the nobility who owned that house. Their eldest man was the leader of the household, but his mother and sisters provided the links among all the members.

How indians became eskimos essay

Along the sides lived families of commoners who attached themselves to that house as kin or labor. Beside the oval front door slept slaves, taken in war or the children of such captives, whose lives belonged to their owner, along with all their efforts. Along the sides of the house where they lived, families kept their own open fires for cooking and heating.

In the middle, however, was a large public hearth used to cook meals for the noble owners or for guests attending a celebration. Tlingit Chief Charles Jones Shakes at home with possessions Houses owned stories epics, sacred histories naming the past people, places, and resources used and thus claimed by clan ancestors.

Some of these histories reflect regional patterns over two thousand years old, involved with fishing, berrying, seaweeding, and hunting at locales owned by a specific house. Most stories in the Northwest, therefore, are "copyrighted" by households within clans.A war became a feud when two groups con-tinually raided each other's settlements in retaliation of casualties incurred during the previous attack.

The original motives for wars seem to have been desire for women and for goods, and, in the case of ongoing feuds, revenge. During the study period, Alaskan Eskimos were represented in 16 articles, Canadian Eskimos in 11 articles, and Greenlandic Eskimos in 3 articles. Not surprisingly, given general lack of access for foreigners to the Soviet Arctic, no articles about Russian Eskimos were published (Appendix 2).

The Inuit people of Alaska take part in what is known as the World Eskimo-Indian Olympics. A vast amount of people from all over the world participate in these games which challenges their strength, endurance, balance and agility (2).

Pre-made tests on Alaska Mid-Book Test - Easy, including multiple choice, short answer, short essay, and in-depth essay questions. Their activities were completely depended on the habitat.

Eskimos and Aleuts that lived in the Arctic region were marine hunters. Indian tribes Haida, Tlingit, Wakash, Szalasi and others lived in the north-west coast and were specialists in fishing and sea hunting.

In Califonia, the Native Americans engaged in gathering acorns, hunting and fishing.

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